|THE SERMON IN ADDRESS TO ALL MANKIND BY
AHMAD AL-MAHMOUD MUHAMMAD MUSTAFA,
A RIGHTEOUS SLAVE OF ALLAH, WHO GUIDED MANKIND TO THE TRUTH
(PEACE BE UPON HIM)
|During his Farewell Pilgrimage, on 9 Dhu Al-Hijjah (the twelfth month of the Arabian Year), Friday, in the afternoon, on his camel called Qaswah, in the middle of the Valley of Arafah, our Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) addressed the whole humankind in the person of 124 thousand Muslims as follows:|
|In the Name of Allah the Merciful, the Compassionate: “Praise be to Allah. Him we praise and Him we ask for help. Whomever Allah guides no one can send astray while whomever He sends astray no one can guide. I testify that there is no god but Allah. Allah is the One. He has no peers; He has no partners. There are none equal to or comparable unto Him. I again testify that Muhammad is his slave and Prophet.
“O Men! Lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year I shall ever be amongst you again. O Men! Lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year I shall ever be amongst you again. O People! Just as these days of yours are sacred days, these months of yours are sacred months and this city of Mecca of yours is a sacred city, so the life, property, chastity and honour of every Muslim are sacred. They are protected against all kinds of aggressions.
O My Companions! Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord; and that He will indeed reckon your deeds. Fear to return to your earlier evil acts or to murder one another after I am gone! Let those that are present here now communicate my Will to those who are absent. Maybe they will have conveyed it to those that will comprehend and memorize it better.
O My Companions! Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Know that all kinds of interest have been banned; and they are under my feet. However, you have to pay the capital of your loans. You will neither inflict nor suffer any oppression. Usury has thus been forbidden with Allah’s Decree from now on. All types of this indecent custom inherited from the Age of Ignorance are under my feet. The first interest I have annulled is that interest-receivable of my uncle Abbas, son of Abd Al-Muttalib.
O My Companions! Beware! The vendettas that were pursued in the Age of Ignorance have been totally abrogated. And the first such blood feud that I have abolished is that of Rabiah, (a son of Harith, an uncle of mine), grandson of Abd Al-Muttalib.
O Men! I advise you to observe the rights of your wives and fear Allah in this matter. You have taken your wives as a trust of Allah and you have made their chaste and honour permissible for you having covenanted in the name of Allah. You have certain rights over your women and your women also have certain rights over you. Your right over women is that they should never let anyone infringe upon the honour and chaste of the family. If they let anyone of whom you do not approve enter your home without your leave, you may discourage them by beating them slightly. On the other hand, the rights of women over you are that you should provide all kinds of (legitimate requirements of) food and clothing of theirs according to traditions and customs.
O Believers! I entrust you with two things. If you obey and adhere to them, you will never go astray. These two trusts are the Book of Allah, Holy Quran, and the Sunnah of His Messenger.
O Men! Time has ever been revolving as per the state determined on the day when Allah created the heavens and the earth. A year is made up of twelve months, four of which, i.e. Dhu Al-Qadah, Dhu Al-Hijjah, Muharram and Rajab, are holy months.
O My Companions! Today Satan has lost his power forever to establish his influence and sultanate here in this land of yours. Nevertheless, if you obey him in minor affairs other than those that I have forbidden you, it will please and encourage him. So keep off from these as well so that you can protect your Religion.
O Believers! Hearken to my words attentively and comprehend them well. Your Lord is One and your father is one. All of you are from Adam, who was created from clay. No one is superior to others by family or generation. The superiority in sight of Allah is only by piety. Muslims are brethren to one another, whereby all the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. The property of Muslims shall be illegitimate to their Muslim brothers, unless it has been given by the owner thereof willingly.
O My Companions! Do not treat your own selves unjustly, either, for your own selves have certain rights over you. Let those that are present here now communicate my Advice to those who are absent.
O Men! Allah the Almighty has given every holder of rights their due rights in the Holy Qur’an. There is no need to will a heritage for the heir. A child belongs to the one in whose bed he was born. There is deprivation for those that have committed adultery. Whoever claims lineage to anyone other than his father is despicable, or whoever attempts to be subject to anyone other than his master is ungrateful; so may the Wrath of Allah and the Curse of Angels and all the Muslims be upon them. Allah the Most High accepts neither the repentance nor the justice or testimony of such people.
O My Companions! Fear Allah; establish your five daily prayers; fast during the month of Ramadan; give the poor-due of your property; obey your administrators. Thus you enter the Paradise of your Lord.
O Men! What will you say when they ask you about me?
The Companions of the Messenger of Allah (p.b.u.h.) said unanimously: “We testify that you have performed the Messengership of Allah; you have duly fulfilled your task; you have conveyed us your will and advice!”
Thereupon, the Messenger of Allah (p.b.u.h.) raised his blessed forefinger, turned it towards the congregation and then lowered it; and he said: “O Allah, bear witness! O Allah, bear witness! O Allah, bear witness!”